A biogas plant is a facility that provides oxygen-free conditions where anaerobic digestion can occur. Simply put, it’s an artificial system where you can turn waste into sustainable energy and fertilizers, with positive effects on the environment.

A Biogas Plant has three Major Components that make the Biogas Production Process Possible:

  • Reception area
  •  Digester (or fermentation tank)
  • Gas holder


The process for producing gobar gas is similar to producing biogas from any other source. It starts with collecting and depositing the cow dung in collection tanks, where the organic matter is mixed until it becomes homogeneous. The slurry is called biomass and is regularly fed into sealed tanks called digesters. The anaerobic digestion occurs in multiple stages inside these containers until bacteria break down all the components to obtain methane and other gases.


  1. Hydrolysis: bacteria turn complex carbohydrates, proteins, and fats into sugars, amino acids, and fatty acids.
  2. Acidogenesis: acidogenic bacteria produce volatile fatty acids (VFAs), alcohols, and gases.
  3. Acetogenesis: acids and alcohols become acetic acid, hydrogen, carbon dioxide, and other gases.
  4. Methanogenesis: methanogens break down the acids and alcohols into methane.

According to studies, each kilogram (2.2 pounds) of cow manure can produce between 15 and 30 litres of biogas per day and even up to 40 litres per day.

Besides gobar gas, the process also generates digestate, which can be used as organic fertiliser for lawns and, in specific conditions, flowers and vegetable gardens. It boosts plants and improves the soil texture, with a long-term impact on how it holds water and creates an environment where bacterial and fungal activity thrives.

Fertiliser from cow dung has balanced amounts of carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium, enabling microbes living in the soil to produce nutrients for plants continuously through natural processes.


Dairy cows continue to be one of the most significant contributors to climate change and significantly impact air and water quality worldwide. Every cow produces, on average, 29.5 kg (65 pounds) of manure and between 250 and 500 litres of methane each day, and turning cow dung into biogas can quickly become a cost-effective waste management solution worldwide.

Biogas and, therefore, gobar gas are seen as flexible energy sources that solve a double problem. On the one hand, they provide quick access to energy to communities in rural areas for affordable prices. On the other hand, the biogas production process helps solve the growing issues generated by cow waste polluting landfills, air, and water.

However, clear legislation should be released to ensure that waste management and sustainability standards are observed so gobar gas plants remain sustainable in the long run and indeed provide clean alternatives to fossil fuels.
As technology evolves and gobar gas systems become better at streamlining the biogas production process, we can expect increased adoption in areas where large amounts of cow waste are available.